Page updated  2006 April 21.

TECH-  Articles from around the globe

Technical support - articles, standards etc

High Definition for Europe  (11p ENG) Hellas SAT2 satellite handbook  (87p ENG)
Summary characteristics of the HOT BIRD sat.  (35p ENG) Hellas SAT2 satellite User's manual  (15p ENG)
Annex_a_HOTBIRD_sat_system  (18p ENG)
EUTELSAT Systems Operations Guide (109p ENG)
EUTELSAT Television Handbook (47p ENG)

Eutelsat satellites - Beacon frequencies
Location Satellite Beacon Frequency EIRP
12.5W Eutelsat 2 F-2 1 11450.35 9  
12.5W Eutelsat 2 F-2 1 11451.83 9  
12.5W Eutelsat 2 F-2 2 12541.667 9  
8W Atlantic Bird2 1 11704 5.5 Global
8W Atlantic Bird2 1 11705.2 5.5 Global
8W Atlantic Bird2 2 12500.5 9 Global
7E Eutelsat W3 B2 12501    
7E Eutelsat W3 B3 11199.5    
10E Eutelsat W1 B1-TM 11450.5 4 Global
10E Eutelsat W1 B1-TM 11451 4 Global
10E Eutelsat W1 B2-CW 12500.25 9 Global
10E Eutelsat W1 B2-CW 12749.75 9 Global
13E Hotbird 1 1 11449.61 9  
13E Hotbird 1 1 11450.35 9  
13E Hotbird 2 1 11702.2 8  
13E Hotbird 2 1 11703.4 8  
13E Hotbird 3   11702.8 8 Global
13E Hotbird 3   11704 8 Global
13E Hotbird 3   12500 8 Global
13E Hotbird 4   11704.6 8 Global
13E Hotbird 4   11705.8 8 Global
13E Hotbird 5   11699.8 8 Global
13E Hotbird 5   11701 8 Global
13E Hotbird 6 end 2002   11700.4 8 Global
13E Hotbird 6   11701.6 8 Global
13E Hotbird 6   19701 9 Ka cover
13E Hotbird 7 end 2002   11702.8 8 Global
13E Hotbird 7   11704 8 Global
13E Hotbird 7   12500 8 Global
16E Eutelsat W2 B1-TM 11698    
16E Eutelsat W2 B1-TM 11699.2    
16E Eutelsat W2 B2 12501    
16E Eutelsat W2 B3 11199    
21.5E Eutelsat 2 F-3 1 12451.83 9  
21.5E Eutelsat 2 F-3 1 12452.57 9  
21.5E Eutelsat 2 F-3 2 12541.667 9  
25.5E Eutelsat 2 F-4 1 12451.091 9  
25.5E Eutelsat 2 F-4 1 12452.57 9  
25.5E Eutelsat 2 F-4 2 12541.667 9  
28.5E Eurobird 1 11451.091    
28.5E Eurobird 1 11452.57    
28.5E Eurobird 2 12501    
28.5E Eurobird 3 11200    
35.9E SESAT 1 11450.35 9  
35.9E SESAT 1 11451.091 9  
35.9E SESAT 2 12501 9  
35.9E SESAT 3 11199.5 9  
36E Eutelsat W4 B1-TM 11706.85    
48E EUT2-F1 1 11451.091 9  
48E EUT2-F1 1 11452.83 9  
48E EUT2-F1 2 12541.667 9  
PanAmSat satellites - Beacon frequencies
Satellite C-band Ku-band
Galaxy 3C   12.199 GHz  Linear (H)
11.704 GHz  Linear (V)
Galaxy 4R 4.198125 GHz  Linear (H)
4.199325 GHz Linear (H)
11.701 GHz  Linear (V)
12.195 GHz  Linear (H)
Galaxy 9 4.199 GHz  Linear (H)
4.199875 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
Galaxy 10R 4.198125 GHz  Linear (V)
4.199625 GHz  Linear (V)
11.701 GHz  Linear (H)
12.195 GHz  Linear (V)
Galaxy 11   10.951 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
11.701 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
11.702 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
12.195 GHz  Linear (V)
Galaxy 12 No Beacon No Beacon
Galaxy 13 4.1985 GHz (V)
4.1995 GHz (V)
Galaxy 14 No Beacon No Beacon
Galaxy 15 No Beacon No Beacon
Horizons 1   11.700 GHz (V)
12.199 GHz (H)
SBS 6   12.195 GHz  Linear (H)
12.198 GHz  Linear (H)
PAS-1R   11.699 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
PAS-2 4.1985 GHz  Linear (H)
4.1995 GHz  Linear (H)
12.5 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
PAS-3 4.1985 GHz  Linear (H)
4.199 GHz  Linear (H)
11.699 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
PAS-4 4.199 GHz  Linear (H)
4.1995 GHz Linear (H)
12.5 GHz  Circular (RH/LH)
PAS-6B   11.2005 GHz  Linear (H)
11.201 GHz  Linear (H)
PAS-7 3.698 GHz  Linear (H) 11.457 GHz  Linear (H)
11.453 GHz  Linear (H)
PAS-8 3.698 GHz  Linear (H) 11.457 GHz  Linear (H)
11.453 GHz  Linear (H)
PAS-9   11.699 GHz  Linear (H)
11.7005 GHz  Linear (V)
11.702 GHz  Linear (V)
11.703 GHz  Linear (V)
PAS-10   11.699 GHz  Linear (V)
12.7495 GHz  Linear (H)


Audio Levels In the early days of broadcasting, most programming was live, equipment was unreliable and budgets were generous. Often, a trained engineer was at the controls at all times mainly to "ride gain" and insure that that audio levels were consistent. The measurement tools included ears and a large VU meter.

However, this manual process was fraught with inconsistency, especially as FCC operator requirements were relaxed and less-trained personnel were expected to perform additional tasks. To make matters worse, some managers and advertising producers wanted their station or commercial to stand out as the loudest, such as the infamous "Hey Culligan Man!" water softener ad.

Loudness Wars

Over time, consumers became so irate at level inconsistency that hearings were held in Congress. In response, the FCC applied pressure to broadcasters who in turn increased their reliance on modulation monitors and audio limiters to stay legal while maximizing loudness.

With great precision, modulation monitors display modulation on a meter as a percentage of the limit and via a "peak flasher" to show peaks the meter does not catch. "Staying legal" is as simple as keeping the light from flashing. Some monitors even provide a numeric count of how many times the limit has been exceeded.

Early broadcast audio limiters did a poor job of controlling level - only marginally insuring compliance with regulations and at the same time introducing a variety of annoying "pumping" and distortion artifacts.

Modern broadcast limiters are much improved and include a compressor function to prevent levels from going too low where they would become "buried in the noise". These limiters do a much better job of assuring legal audio with minimum artifacts while providing as much "presence" as possible.

Casual measurements of nine stations in a large market show peak audio levels within 4 dB over a short time frame - a reasonable deviation.

Cable Audio Levels

While the cable television industry can count on broadcast channels to have fairly uniform control over excessive modulation, the same cannot be said for the hundreds of satellite channels available for carriage. To avoid consumer complaint, some cable systems pass all analog channels through audio compressor/limiters in the cable head-end.

The Pre-Emphasis Problem

The FM modulation system used for analog radio and television has a natural excess of noise at higher frequencies. To reduce this annoyance, designers of the FM modulation system for broadcasting decided to boost high frequencies before modulation (pre-emphasis) and reduce them in each receiver after demodulation (de-emphasis). They considered this a good solution; since programming of the day had little high frequency content, boosting it would not be a problem.

However, microphones used today for audio capture have radically better high-frequency performance. Synthesized sounds with ample high-frequency content are commonplace. To compensate, broadcast limiters include "pre-emphasis protection", where loud high frequency sounds are limited more dramatically than low frequency sounds. The result is legal but unsatisfactory - loud sounds tend to sound "dull" and void of high-frequencies.

Peak Modulation is Not Loudness

While broadcasters apply strict control over excessive modulation, this does not result in uniform loudness. Human hearing does not judge loudness the same way a modulation monitor reads percent modulation. Our ears are most sensitive to sounds in the frequency range of speech intelligibility - a natural design consistent with our need to communicate verbally. The ear also senses an average of dialog level over time. In the early days of "loudness wars", CBS Labs developed a "Loudness Meter" designed to mimic human loudness sensitivity. However, it's complexity-induced high cost and lack of incentive resulted in few being purchased by broadcasters.

The proper use of a loudness meter to control audio levels would require that some programming be reduced in level so that their loudness match other programming of equal modulation but lower loudness. But many broadcasters prefer that modulation is maximized. They are happy if one program ends up sounding louder than others by leaving it at full modulation.

The Dynamic Range Problem

While typical measures used for broadcasting assure a reasonable consistency in loudness levels for the consumer, there is a regrettable side effect. In these analog systems, there is no way to keep dialog consistent, remain legal, keep the noise low, and still provide consumers with the kind of symphonic sforzando or theatric explosion common in CDs and DVDs. Instead, these dramatic events are reduced to a same volume as speech. 

Audio Limiters
Thanks to Xenofon from
FM Audio Processing Today
All Brands Are Trade Marks Registered To Their Owners
Obsolete Products
Orban 8200
Orban Optimod 8200S
Too close on 8100A1/XT2
Discontinuedreplaced by
8300 or latest 5300
Multiband process, 2 or 5 band DSPV3.0. With stereo coder.
This is the first digital fm 
 audio processor.
Orban 2200
Orban Optimod 2200
Discontinued replaced
by 2300
2band processor, stereo encoder.
Modulation Sciences MYB-2 The Best
Modulation Sciences 
MYB-2Stereo Maxx
Stereo Spatial Enhancer plus diffusion. This is the first for broadcast use enhance stereo unit from early 80's with the unigue way of Mr. Eric Small. 
Current Products
Orban 8500.
Orban Optimod 8500 New
Upgraded version of 8400HD
Multiple audio processing
structures, 2 or 5 band DSP
target zone gating AGC, stereo coder, 222A spatial, 42 new presets, intelligent clipping, composite limiting.

RW Online

Orban 5300.
Orban Optimod 5300  New
Upgraded version of 8300?
Multiband process, 2 or 5 band DSP derived stereo coder, target
zone gating AGC, HF enhancer, 222A spatial, composite limiting.
Orban 8400 HD.
Orban Optimod 8400HD
Parallel processing paths in
one box, for curent Fm radio
and for  iBiquity's HD Radio,
Eureka 147 or Netcasting.
Multiple audio processing
structures, 2 or 5 band DSP
target zone gating AGC, stereo coder, 222A spatial,more than 
20 presets, intelligent clipping, composite limiting.
Orban 8500 Sign.
Orban Optimod 8400S New
Upgraded version of 8400
Multiband process, 2 or 5 band 
DSP. With stereo coder,222A
spatial enchancer, stereo maxx. 
Orban 8400.
Orban Optimod 8400
Too far from 8200
Multiband process, 2 or 5 band 
DSP. With stereo coder,222A
spatial enchancer, stereo maxx. 
Orban 8300
Orban Optimod 8300
Just an low-priced 8400
The replacment of 8200 with new
Multiband process, 2 or 5 band With stereo coder.
Aphex 2020 MKIII
Aphex   2020 MkIII 
Analog Hi Sonic Perfomance
Optical Pre-Emphasis Limiter
Overshoot Compensated 
Lowpass Filters, Baseband 
Spectral Purity, Multiband Compression Algorithm.
Optional stereo encoder.
IDT Dvp Fm From France.
Multiband AGC, FFT Process
Stereo Coder, Plug In 
modular architecture.
Solidyne 262 - X
Solidyne 262-X
From Argentina
The flagship model.The only
one with 7 bands on the market
variable architecture, stereo enhancer, aural exciter.etc
Low cost, a serious competitor
of well known best selling processors. Optional
stereo encoder.
Omnia 6fm
Omnia 6fm
6-band digital processor
stereo encoder, adjustable
crossover, SPACE-EFX 
stereo enhancement.
Inovonics Omega fm
Inovonics Omega fm
4Band process, with triple
parametric EQ, split-spectrum
final limiting, multi-band
leveling, stereo coder.

RW Online

Solidyne Orion 462
Solidyne Orion 462
From Argentina. 4 band with
all the same principles of flagship
262X Optional stereo encoder.
Junger d07
Junger D07
From Germany
Adaptive pre-emphasis, adaptive
spectral processing.
Broadcast Technology Ultramod
Broadcast Technology
Ultramod fm
Ultra-transparent split band 
Compressor-Expander, Dual
composite outputs, Composite
processing, Stereo generation
Constant phase low pass filters.
Warsanis 1401fm
Warsanis 1401fm 
From  Netherlands.
4 band programmable Audio
Processor, Phase Rotator 
Multiband clipper module.15kHz
Low Pass Filter,  stereo coder.
Orban 2300
Orban Optimod 2300   New
The replacment of 2200 with new
feature like, Parametric EQ, 222A
stereo spatial, high freq enhance "half-cosine" composite limiter. 
CRL Amigo fm
CRLsystems Amigo fm
Wide range dual-band AGC 
multiband limiting, stereo encoder 
stereo sound enhancement.
Broadcastwarehouse   DSP X
Broadcastwarehouse DSP X
The lower price.
Multi band look ahead limiting
adaptive bass and brightness
plug-ins, adjustable parametric equalizers, stereo coder, with
anti aliased composite clipper.

RW Online

Audemat-Aztec FMX480
Audemat - Aztec
Fmx 410 & 480
The best at low price, All in one 
sound processor, digital stereo generator, RDS encoder, DARC encoder and digital composite clipper. Using DSP technology.
Solidine 362
Solidyne 362
From Argentina. 3 band just the
little sister of 262 & 462, analogue
high end sound, super modulation
with stereo encoder, low price.
Tx Techniques.
Tx Techniques UK
All in one box lower price.
30W Stereo FM Exciter/Transmitter with
integral RDS Encoder, Stereo 5-band Audio Processor and
DTMF remote.
Tiesecci Digimod 9500
Tiesecci Digimod 9500
Italian replica of Orban 8200?
6 Band Digital Processor 
Dynamic Bass Manager 
Pure Anti-Aliased clippers
Built-In digital stereo encoder 
Aev xtreme
Aev   Xtreme From Italy
5-band digital processor
digital stereo encoder. FM
AM, TV versions.
Aev diamond
Aev Diamond From Italy
3 band processor, digital stereo
encoder, RDS, stereo enhancer.
Aev   Mirage MKII
Aev Mirage MKIIFrom Italy
3 band processor, digital stereo
encoder, all ajustable parameters
Axeldigital Falcon 15
Axeldigital Falcon 15 & 35 
From Italy
5 & 3 Band Processor
Digital stereo encoder
Digital RDS coder.
Orban Optimod Pc1100
Orban Optimod Pc1100
For digital broadcast or webcast 
No pre-emphasis, no stereo 
coder, Multiband AGC and
compression, equalization fine 
tune "look-ahead" limiting
over 20 factory presets, On
board DSP minimizes CPU load. 
TCelectronic   DBMax
TCelectronic DBMax
5 bandprocessor,Static Stereo Enhancement, Dynamic Static Eq
No stereo coder.
Ariane Sequel
Translantech Ariane Sequel
Successfully Analogue Ariane
go to Digital Sequel.
No stereo coder
Translantech   Ariane
Translantech Ariane 
The most fabulous pre-processor ever made
Multi-Band RMS Processor
Control the stereo sub-carrier modulation, matrix control circuit
bass Humper circuitry.
No stereo coder

Details 2

Aphex   Dominator II
Aphex Dominator II®
Studio 720 & On air 722
Analog Hi Sonic Perfomance
Transmission limiter
Switchable pre/de-emphasis 
3 Bands Limiting, Switchable
Crossover Frequencies, 
No srereo coder.
Aphex Compellor 320A
Aphex Compellor ®320A
Analog Hi Sonic Perfomance
Intelligent compressor action leveling and peak limiting simultaneously. The ultimate
Hi Quality Level Tool. 
Aphex ExciterŽ Type III
Aural Exciter® Type III 250
Just the first and best 
exciter in the world.
TCelectronic Finalizer
TCelectronic Finalizer
Multiband Compressor
Dynamic EQ,Stereo Adjust
Spectral Stereo Image
No srereo coder.
Behringer   PRO DSP9024
Behringer PRO DSP9024
Digital 6 band Compressor
Limiter, Gate, Peak Limiter
No stereo coder.
Behringer   DSP1400P
Behringer DSP1400P
2-Band Loudness Maximizer 
Noise reduction system.
No stereo coder.
Modulation Sciences CP-803
Modulation Sciences CP-803
Composite Audio Processor
First industry standard baseband processor, eliminates overshoots 
Does not clip the 19 kHz pilot.
Broadcast Technology CP-2013
Broadcast Technology CP-2013
Composite Audio Processor
Excellent baseband processor
like Modsci CP-803.
Orban 222A
Orban 222A
Only for the purists a Bob's way.
Classic Stereo Spatial Enhancer
No increase in FM multipath.
Aev  Thunder
Aev ThunderFrom Italy
Composite Audio Processor
Excellent stereo separation
Regeneration of 19 Khz pilot.
Aev   Luxor 3D 
Aev Luxor 3D From Italy
   Stereo enhancer, Digital 
delay on audio material.
BBE   882i & 482i
BBE 882i & 482i
Sonic Maximizer
AdaptiveHigh Definition
Dynamic HF Enhancer.
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